Các dạng đảo ngữ trong tiếng Anh Inversion

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Download Đề thi HSG Tiếng Anh 12 tỉnh Đồng Nai năm 2021 bảng B

INVERSION (ĐẢO NGỮ)

Câu đảo ngữ là dạng câu đem trợ động từ (hoặc động từ) ra trước chủ ngữ. Đây là dạng bài gần đây xuất hiện trong kì thi THPT Quốc gia. Sau đây là một số dạng đảo ngữ phổ biến:

DẠNG 1: ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NONOT:

Eg1: I will lend you no money from now on. – No money will I lend you from now on.

Eg2: I will not lend you any money from now on. – Not any money will I lend you from now on.

Eg3: He did not say a word. – Not a word did he say.

DẠNG 2: ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC TRẠNG TỪ PHỦ ĐỊNH:

Never (không bao giờ), rarely = seldom = little (ít khi, hiếm khi, hầu như không), hardly (ever) (hầu như không bao giờ).

Eg1: I will never speak to him again. – Never will I speak to him again.

Eg2: He has rarely got mark 10 in maths. – Rarely has he got mark 10 in maths.

Eg3: I seldom listen to rock music. – Seldom do I listen to rock music.

Eg4: She little understands me. – Little does she understand me.

Eg5: She is never late for school. – Never is she late for school.

DẠNG 3: ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN:

1CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1:

IF S V…….  SHOULD V ……….

Eg1: If she comes late, he will miss the bus.

– Should she come late, he will miss the bus.

Eg2: If you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.

 Should you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.

2CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2:

aCÓ ĐỘNG TỪ TO BE:

IF WERE …………………..  WERE S ………………..

Eg1: If I were you, I wouldnt do that. – Were I you, I wouldn’t do that.

b. CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ THƯỜNG:

IF V2/-ed ………………… – WERE TO V ……………

Eg2: If he worked more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes.

– Were he to work more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes.

3CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3:

IF HAD V3/-ed ……………… – HAD V3/-ed ………….

Eg1: If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.

– Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.

Notes: Đối với cả 3 loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau chủ từ.

Eg2: If you dont believe what I said, ask your mother.

– Should you not believe what I said, ask your mother.

Eg3: If I hadn’t seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.

– Had I not seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.

DẠNG 4ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI:

No sooner  than; Hardly/Barely/Scarcely…… when... (vừa mới … thì)

Eg1: I had no sooner arrived home than the phone rang.

– No sooner had I arrived home than the phone rang.

Eg2: I had hardly arrived home when the phone rang.

– Hardly had I arrived home when the phone rang.

DẠNG 5ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI SO …THATSUCH …THAT :

1SO …THAT :

Eg1: The play is so interesting that the theatre is likely to be full every night.

– So interesting is the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.

Eg2: He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch.

– So hard did he worked that he forgot his lunch.

Eg3: Alice has so much homework that she can’t finish it all.

– So much homework does Alice have that she can’t finish it all.

Notes: Dùng SO MANY/FEW/MUCH/LITTLE N không dùng SUCH.

2SUCH …THAT :

Eg1: It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy.

– Such was a boring speech that I got sleepy.

DẠNG 6: ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI : NOT ONLY …BUT ALSO (không những mà còn)

NOT ONLY mệnh đề đảo BUT ……… ALSO mệnh đề thường

Eg1: He is not only good at English but he can also draw very well.

– Not only is he good at English but he can also draw very well.

Eg2: He not only stole the car but also burnt the house.

– Not only did he steal the car but he also burnt the house.

DẠNG 7: ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: NOT UNTIL 

– Not until later did I recognize him.

Eg1: It was not until I went to bed that I remembered the task.

– Not until I went to bed did I remember the task.

Eg2: I didnt know where I was until I asked a passer-by.

– Not until I asked a passer-by did I know where I was.

DẠNG 8: ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI ONLY:

– Only later: Chỉ sau này

– Only then : chỉ đến lúc đó

– Only by N/V-ing : chỉ bằng cách

– Only in this/ that way : chỉ bằng cách này/đó

– Only after N/V-ing: chỉ sau khi.

– Only after + S + V: chỉ sau khi.

Eg1: I realized that I had forgotten to put on a stamp only after posting the letter.

– Only after posting the letter did I realize that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.

Eg2: She will love him only when she understands him.

– Only when she understands him will she love him.

Eg3: We can pass the exam only by working harder.

– Only by working harder can we pass the exam.

DẠNG 9: ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC CỤM GIỚI TỪ CÓ NO:

– At no time : chưa từng bao giờ

– In no way : không còn cách nào

– On no condition : tuyệt đối không

– On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì

– Under/ In no circumstances: trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.

– For no reasons = On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì.

– No longer: không còn nữa

Eg1: He never knew she came from a rich family.

– Never did he know she came from a rich family.

– At no time did he know she came from a rich family.

Eg2: Passengers arent permitted to open the doors under/ in any circumstances.

– Under/ In no circumstances are passengers permitted to open the doors.

Eg3: He no longer works as an accountant. He has just found another job.

– No longer does he works as an accountant. He has just found another job.

DẠNG 10: ĐẢO NGỮ SAU CÁC TRẠNG NGỮ CHỈ PHƯƠNG HƯỚNG HOẶC VỊ TRÍ:

Khi câu có một từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ chỉ phương hướng hoặc vị trí thì nội động từ được đảo lên trước chủ ngữ.

Eg1: His father sat in an armchair. – In an armchair sat his father.

Notes:

– Động từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn dùng các nội động từ chỉ sự chuyển động như: CLIMB, COME, FLY, GO, HANG, LIE, RUN, SIT, STAND, ……..

– Trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ mà sử dụng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ từ.

– Không đảo ngữ khi chủ từ là đại từ.

Eg2: In an armchair sat he. (Sai) – In an armchair he sat. (Đúng)

Tài liệu tham khảo “Rèn luyện kỹ năng viết tiếng Anh” của NXB Đại học QG Hà Nội

 

BÀI TẬP

Bài tập 1: Chuyển sang dạng Đảo Ngữ:

1. He is so gentle that he never scolds anyone.

 So …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. He hardly bought a new bike when he had an accident.

– Hardly ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. The thief ran away.

– Away ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4. I could drive a car only when I reached 30.

– Only when ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. If he goes to school, he will have money.

– Should ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. The man not only beat the child but also took all her money.

– Not only …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7. She will never accept his proposal.

– At no time …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8. Mr. Bean rarely showed his intelligence.

– Rarely ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9. I phone him as soon as I went home.

– No sooner ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

10. If you had followed the advice, you would have succeeded.

– Had …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

11. He dived into the sea.

– Into …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12. If he had money, he would travel.

– Were …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

13. She is such a gentle girl that she speaks very softly.

– Such ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

14. The girl lay on the bed.

– On …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

15. It was not until she was 18 that she went abroad.

– Not until

16. We can only improve our skills by training hard.

– Only ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

17. They are here.

– Here ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

18. He no longer drinks coffee.

– No ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

19. He stood outside the door.

– Outside ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

20. It was not until they were robbed of money that they became more careful.

– Not until …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Bài tập 2: Chọn phương án đúng nhất để hoàn thành các câu sau đây

1. Never in his life___such an intelligent student.

a. he has taught b. has he taught             c. he taught                   d. did he teach

2. ___ the girl taller, she could reach that item.

a. If                              b. Should                                  c. Were                        d. Had

3. Under no circumstance__John any money.

a. should you lend         b. you should lend                     c. you cloud lend          d. you might lend

4. Hardly had he entered the room___ he realized that he had left his wallet on the bus.

a. when                        b. that                                       c. so                             d. than

5. ___will Paul get a higher salary in the future.

a. With hard work                                                        b. Despite his hard work

c. Only if he works hardly                                             d. Only by working hard

6. Not only ___ all his money but also he borrowed some from me.

a. he spent                    b. did he spent                          c. he did spend             d. did he spend

7. Never___ such a dramatic rise in jobless rate.

a. there is                      b. is there                                 c. there has been           d. has there been

8.___every day will you improve your skill in speaking English.

a. By practice               b. By practicing                        c. Only by practice       d. Only by practicing

9. ____any postcards did he receive last Christmas.

a. No                           b. Not                                      c. There is                    d. There was

10. So hot___that we couldn’t drink it.

a. the coffee is              b. is the coffee                          c. the coffee was           d. was the coffee

11. ___ you wish to cancel your order, please contact our customer service department.

a. Should                      b. Were                                    c. Had                          d. If

12. ___it not been for his foresight in ensuring everybody had lifejackets, everyone on board would have drowned.

a. Should                      b. Were                                    c. Had                          d. If

13. ___you not been so stupid as to reject that job offer, you could have attained financial independence now.

a. Should                      b. Were                                    c. Had                          d. If

14. ___ we to give up the fight now, it would mean the end of democracy.

a. Should                      b. Were                                    c. Had                          d. If

15. ____we not give Jane a pay-rise, she wouldn’t still be working for us.

a. Should                      b. Were                                    c. Had                          d. If

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